Introducing Beescape: a new online tool and community to support bees
"Pollinators, particularly bees, play a vital role in supporting ecosystems in agricultural, urban and natural landscapes," said Christina Grozinger, Distinguished Professor of Entomology and director of the Center for Pollinator Research in Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences. "Nearly 90 percent of flowering plant species use pollinators to set seed and fruit, which animals -- including humans -- rely on for food."
The Illinois component of this project is led by Adam Dolezal, assistant professor in the Dept. of Entomology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. "Beekeepers in many Midwestern states, including Illinois, lose more than half of their colonies each year. The risks to bee health are driven by multiple stresses – insecticide exposure, nutritional stress from reduced flower diversity and abundance, and pressure from disease. These issues interact with each other and can vary a lot across the state and the country." He also notes that many of the issues we see in honey bees are mirrored in the wild bee species that live throughout the state. "Wild bee populations are also declining as they face the many of the same stresses as honey bees."
Bees can travel long distances -- several miles from their hives in the case of honey bees -- to find food. However, it has been nearly impossible for a beekeeper, or anyone interested in understanding what the bees in their backyards or farms are experiencing, to know what stressors their bees might encounter during their trips.
Dolezal and his colleagues are using Beescape.org to answer these questions. Previous work by researchers at Pennsylvania State University and University of Minnesota created methods to estimate the forage quality, nesting habitat quality and insecticide load in a landscape.
Beescape.org allows users to select a specific location -- the apiary where they house their honey bee colonies, their home garden or their farm -- and obtain these landscape-quality scores for the surrounding region, up to 5 kilometers away. Users also can examine the crops that are being grown in the areas around them.
"Beescape allows people to see the world as a bee, which will help them make decisions about where to place their colonies or steps they and their neighbors can take, such as planting pollinator gardens or reducing insecticide use, to make the landscape more friendly for bees," said project collaborator Maggie Douglas, an assistant professor at Dickinson College in Carlisle.
Importantly, Beescape enables researchers to partner with beekeepers and gardeners to gather information about how their bees are doing. The data generated from this partnership and community of collaborators will help researchers to better calculate how these landscape-quality scores translate to health outcomes for bees.
"With data provided by beekeepers from agricultural, rural and urban landscapes across multiple states, we will be able to develop high-quality predictive models that will be included in the website in the future," said Melanie Kammerer Allen, a graduate student in ecology at Penn State, who is involved in the project. "This will allow beekeepers to determine if they should provide the bees with supplementary food, for example, or for a grower to decide if they should add pollinator nesting habitat near their crops."
The team collaborated with Azavea, a Philadelphia-based company that designs civic geospatial software and data analytics for the web, to develop the site.
The site currently has map information for Pennsylvania, Indiana and Illinois, and the team plans to include additional states in the future. Beekeepers and individuals with wild bee hotels in their backyards are encouraged to join the Beescape.org community and help provide information on the health of their bees.
Beescape is a partnership led by Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences, Center for Pollinator Research and Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, headed by Christina Grozinger. Other collaborators include Eric Lonsdorf, a lead scientist at the University of Minnesota’s Institute on the Environment; Harland Patch, research scientist, Doug Sponsler, postdoctoral fellow, and Kate Anton, research technician, all with the Penn State Department of Entomology; and Brock Harpur, assistant professor at Purdue University.
The research was supported by funding from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture, by a grant from the Foundation for Food and Agricultural Research, and National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center.